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Python Programming Tutorial For Beginners

Learn Python programming from scratch. Ideal for beginners. Covers basics, syntax, and practical examples. Build a strong foundation!

Python Programming Tutorial For Beginners

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Last updated on 9th Nov 2023 6.8K Views
Prashant Bisht Technical content writer experienced in writing tech-related blogs along with software technologies. Skilled in technical content writing, content writing, SEO content writing, WordPress, off-page SEO.
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Learn Python programming from scratch. Ideal for beginners. Covers basics, syntax, and practical examples. Build a strong foundation!

Python Programming Tutorial for Beginners

This blog is a concise guide for Python beginners, offering insights into Python's significance, learning process, and fundamental concepts, including variables, data types, type conversions, and operators.

  • What is Python?

  • About Python Tutorial for Beginners

  • Why Learn Python?

  • How to learn Python?

  • Python Programming for Beginners: An Overview

  • Getting Started with Python

  • Python Keywords and Identifiers

  • Python Comments

  • Python Variables, Constants, Literals

  • Python Data Types

  • Operators in Python

  • Key Takeaways

What is Python?

  • Python is a high-level, versatile programming language.

  • Known for its simplicity and readability, making it a great choice for beginners.

  • Supports various applications, from web development to data analysis and artificial intelligence.

  • Utilizes an easy-to-understand syntax with indentation as a part of its structure.

  • Python is an open-source language, meaning it's free to use and has a vast community of developers contributing to its growth.

Why Learn Python?

  • Popularity: Python is one of the most popular programming languages worldwide, which means there is a vast community of developers and extensive resources available for learners.

  • Simplicity: The clean and readable code of Python makes it an ideal choice for beginners. 

  • Versatility: Python can be used in various fields, from web development and data analysis to artificial intelligence and automation.

  • High Demand: Python developers are in high demand across different industries, offering excellent job opportunities.

  • Community and Resources: A vast community and extensive resources make it easy to find support and learn.

  • Salary Potential: Python developers often earn competitive salaries due to their sought-after skills.

The Objectives of a Python Tutorial for Beginners

  • Master the Basics: Learn the fundamentals of Python, including variables, data types, and basic operations.

  • Understand Control Structures: Explore how to control the flow of your programs with loops and conditional statements.

  • Work with Functions: Learn how to create and use functions to break your code into manageable pieces.

  • Use Libraries: Discover how to leverage Python libraries and modules to expand your capabilities.

  • Practice Coding: Engage in hands-on exercises and projects to apply what you've learned.

  • Gain Problem-Solving Skills: Develop your ability to solve real-world problems with Python.

  • Build a Strong Foundation: Lay the groundwork for more advanced topics like web development, data science, or machine learning.

How to Learn Python?

  • Online Courses: Many platforms offer Python course for beginners, such as Codecademy, Coursera, and edX.

  • Books: Books like "Automate the Boring Stuff with Python" and "Python Crash Course" are excellent for self-paced learning.

  • Interactive Platforms: Websites like HackerRank and LeetCode allow you to practice Python by solving coding challenges.

  • Coding Communities: Join online forums like Stack Overflow and Reddit /learnpython to ask questions and learn from others.

  • Projects and Practice: Work on personal projects to apply your knowledge and gain practical experience.

  • Bootcamps: Consider enrolling in a coding bootcamp if you're looking for an immersive learning experience.

  • Tutorials and Documentation: Python's official website provides extensive tutorials and documentation to help you master the language.

  • Mentorship: Finding a mentor or participating in coding meetups can provide valuable guidance and support.

Python Programming: An Overview

  • Open-Source Freedom: Python is both free to use and open-source, making it accessible for all, including commercial use.

  • Simplicity in Learning: The clean and readable code of Python makes it an ideal choice for beginners.  When compared to other languages.

  • Platform Flexibility: Python programs are portable, allowing you to seamlessly transfer them from one platform to another without the need for modifications.

Getting Started with Python: Learn step by step with Experts

1. Install Python:

  • Visit the official Python website (python.org).

  • Download the latest version of Python for your operating system (Windows, macOS, or Linux).

  • Run the installer, and make sure to check the "Add Python to PATH" option during installation.

2. Choose IDE:

  • An IDE is where you'll write and run your Python code. 

    • IDLE: This comes bundled with Python and is a simple IDE for beginners.

    • PyCharm: A powerful and feature-rich IDE.

    • Visual Studio Code: A lightweight, open-source code editor with Python support.

    • Jupyter Notebook: Ideal for data science and interactive coding.

  • Pick the one that suits your needs and install it.

3. Write Your First Python Program:

  • Open your chosen IDE.

  • Create a new Python file (usually with a .py extension).

  • Write a simple program, like the classic "Hello, World!" example:


  • Save the file.

4. Run Your Python Program:

  • In your IDE, find the option to run the program.

  • Your program's output, "Hello, World!" in this case, should appear in the console.

5. Explore Python Basics:

  • Start with the fundamentals:

    • Variables: Learn how to store and manipulate data.

    • Data types: Understand integers, strings, and lists.

    • Control structures: Explore if statements, loops, and functions.

  • Online tutorials, courses, and Python documentation can help you master these concepts.

6. Keep Practicing:

  • Programming is a hands-on skill. Write more code to reinforce your learning.

  • Work on small projects to apply your knowledge and build confidence.

7. Join the Python Community:

  • Engage with Python enthusiasts on forums like Stack Overflow or Reddit's r/learnpython.

  • Attend local Python meetups or online webinars to connect with fellow learners.

8. Explore Python Libraries:

  • Python offers a vast library ecosystem for various applications.

  • For data science, try libraries like NumPy, Pandas, and Matplotlib.

  • For web development, learn Django or Flask.

9. Learn Advanced Topics:

  • As you become more comfortable with Python, delve into more advanced subjects like object-oriented programming, web scraping, or machine learning.

10. Stay Curious:

  • Python is a vast field. Keep exploring, experimenting, and building to nurture your passion for programming.

Python Keywords and Identifiers Simplified

Python Keywords

  • Keywords are special words with predefined meanings in Python.

  • They define the structure of a language and cannot be used as variable names.

Example of Keywords:

  • True, False, None, if, else, while, and many more.

Python Identifiers

  • Identifiers are names for variables, classes, and methods.

  • They must follow certain rules:

    • Cannot be a keyword.

    • Case-sensitive.

    • Start with a letter or underscore (_).

    • Can contain letters and digits.

    • Avoid using special symbols like: !, @, #, $, etc.

Examples of Identifiers:

  • language, score, return_value, highest_score, name1, convert_to_string.

Rules for Identifiers:

  • Follow good naming conventions for clarity.

  • Use underscores to separate words in long identifiers, like this_is_a_long_variable.

Python Comments Explained

Comments in Code

  • Comments are notes used in programming to make code more understandable.

  • They are for the programmers' benefit and are ignored by the computer.

  • Example:

Types of Comments in Python

  • In Python, there are two types of comments:

  1. Single-line Comment

  • Start and end in the same line.

  • Created with the # symbol.

  • Example:

  1. Multi-line Comment

    • Python doesn't have a specific multiline comment, but we can use # at the beginning of each line for multiline comments.

    • Another option is using triple quotes (''' or """) to create multiline comments.

    • While technically multiline strings, if not assigned to any variable, they work as comments.

Example using #:

Example using triple quotes:

Using Python Comments

  1. Enhancing Code Comprehension

    • Comments make code more understandable for developers, including yourself and others.

  2. Debugging with Comments

  • Comments can be used for debugging.

  • By commenting on a problematic line instead of removing it, we can isolate errors and run the program without errors.

Note: Comments should explain "why" something is done rather than "how" it's done. They are not a substitute for poorly written code but rather a way to clarify the purpose of code.

Python Variables, Constants, and Literals

Python Variables

  • Containers for data, like boxes for storing things.

  • Example:

Assigning Values

  • Use = to give a variable a value.

Example:

Changing Variable Values

  • You can change a variable's value anytime.

Example:

Assigning Multiple Values

  • You can assign multiple values to multiple variables at once.

Example:

Rules for Variable Names

  • Use letters (uppercase/lowercase), digits, or underscores.

  • Make names meaningful.

  • Use underscores for two-word names.

  • Python is case-sensitive.

  • Avoid using keywords like if, True, class, etc.

Python Constants

  • Values that don't change.

  • Typically, in a separate module.

Example:

constants.py:

main.py:

Python Literals

  • Fixed values, like numbers or text.

Examples:

Number: 42 String: 'Hello, World!'

Python Numeric Literals

  • Numbers like integers, floats, or complex numbers.

Examples:

Integer: 17 Float: 3.14 Complex: 5 + 2j

Python Boolean Literals

  • Two values: True and False.

Example:

Strings and Characters

  • Strings are text, and characters are single letters.

Examples:

Character: 'A' String: 'Python is cool'

Special Literal in Python

  • Python has a special literal: None.

  • Represents a null or empty value.

Example:

Literal Collections

  • Python has lists, tuples, dictionaries, and sets.

Examples:

List: [1, 2, 3] Tuple: (5, 8, 13) Dictionary: {'key': 'value'} Set: {'apple', 'banana', 'cherry'}


You May Also Read: Python Developer Salary

Python Data Types


What are Data Types?

Data types define the type of data a variable can hold. They ensure that the operations performed on the data are appropriate. Python has various data types used in programming, let us discuss them one by one.

  1. Numbers

  • Integers (int): Whole numbers, e.g., 5, -3, 0.

  • Floating-point numbers (float): Numbers with decimals, e.g., 3.14, -0.5.

  1. Strings

  • Text data, enclosed in single (' ') or double (" ") quotes.

  • Example: "Hello, Python!"

  1. Boolean

  • Represents truth values: True or False.

  • Used for decision-making.

  1. Lists

  • Ordered collection of values.

  • Values can be of different data types.

  • Enclosed in square brackets, e.g., [1, 2, "three"].

  1. Tuples

  • Similar to lists but immutable (unchangeable).

  • Enclosed in parentheses, e.g., (1, 2, "three").

  1. Dictionaries

  • Stores data as key-value pairs.

  • Keys must be unique.

  • Enclosed in curly braces, e.g., {"name": "Alice", "age": 30}.

  1. Sets

  • Unordered collection of unique values.

  • Enclosed in curly braces, e.g., {1, 2, 3}.

Type Conversion

  • You can convert one data type to another.

  • Example: Converting a float to an integer.

Checking Data Type

  • You can check the data type of a variable using the type() function.

  • Example:

Dynamic Typing

  • In Python, you don't need to declare the data type explicitly.

  • The interpreter figures it out based on the value assigned.

  • Example:

Python Operators

In Python, operators are symbols that allow you to perform various operations on variables and values. Let's explore some common Python operators:

Arithmetic Operators

These operators are used for basic mathematical operations.

  • + (Addition): Adds two numbers.

  • - (Subtraction): Subtracts one number from another.

  • (Multiplication): Multiplies two numbers.

  • / (Division): Divides one number by another.

  • % (Modulus): Returns the remainder of a division.

  • ** (Exponentiation): Raises a number to a power.

  • // (Floor Division): Returns the integer part of a division.

Comparison Operators 

These operators compare two values and return a Boolean result.

  • == (Equal): Checks if two values are equal.

  • != (Not Equal): Checks if two values are not equal.

  • < (Less Than): Checks if the left value is less than the right value.

  • > (Greater Than): Checks if the left value is greater than the right value.

  • <= (Less Than or Equal To): Checks if the left value is less than or equal to the right value.

  • >= (Greater Than or Equal To): Checks if the left value is greater than or equal to the right value.

Logical Operators 

Logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.

  • and (Logical AND): Returns True if both conditions are true.

  • or (Logical OR): Returns True if at least one condition is true.

  • not (Logical NOT): Returns the opposite of the condition.

Assignment Operators 

Assignment operators are used to assign values to variables.

  • = (Assignment): Assigns a value to a variable.

  • += (Addition Assignment): Adds and assigns a value.

  • -= (Subtraction Assignment): Subtracts and assigns a value.

  • *= (Multiplication Assignment): Multiplies and assigns a value.

  • /= (Division Assignment): Divides and assigns a value.

  • %= (Modulus Assignment): Calculates the modulus and assigns a value.

  • **= (Exponentiation Assignment): Raises to a power and assigns a value.

  • //= (Floor Division Assignment): Performs floor division and assigns a value.

Bitwise Operators 

Bitwise operators work on bits and perform bit-level operations.

  • & (Bitwise AND): Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1.

  • | (Bitwise OR): Sets each bit to 1 if at least one bit is 1.

  • ^ (Bitwise XOR): Sets each bit to 1 if only one bit is 1.

  • ~ (Bitwise NOT): Inverts all the bits.

  • << (Left Shift): Shifts bits to the left.

  • >> (Right Shift): Shifts bits to the right.

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Membership Operators 

These operators test if a sequence contains a certain value.

  • in Returns True if a value is found in the sequence.

  • not in: Returns True if a value is not found in the sequence.

Identity Operators 

Identity operators compare the memory location of two objects.

  • is: Returns True if both variables are the same object.

  • is not: Returns True if both variables are not the same object.

These are the essential Python operators. They enable you to perform a wide range of operations and comparisons in your Python programs.

Key Takeaways:

  • Python is a versatile and beginner-friendly programming language.

  • Python operators allow you to perform various operations on data.

  • Learning Python operators is essential for performing calculations and comparisons.

  • Python supports arithmetic, comparison, logical, assignment, bitwise, membership, and identity operators.

  • Mastering Python operators is a foundational step in your programming journey.

  • If you find Python challenging, consider enrolling in a training course at Croma to enhance your skills and boost your career.

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